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Shreefal S. Biotechnology for Biofuel Production and Optimization. Carrie A Eckert. The Minimal Cell. Pier Luigi Luisi. Deepa Srivastava. Inhalation Drug Delivery. Paolo Colombo. Introduction to Enzyme and Coenzyme Chemistry. Horst Feldmann. Bioprocess Engineering. Enzymes as biocatalysts have been widely used in industrial processes such as food processing, beer fermentation, laundry detergents, pickling purposes, and to control, as well as accelerate, the catalytic reactions in order to quickly and precisely obtain various valuable end products.
Moreover, enzymes are widely used both at the laboratory scale, as well as at the commercial level for a wide range of applications, including stereospecific bioconversion, utilization of waste into beneficial end products or environmental friendly substitutes, upgrading raw materials, and so forth. The exact potential of these remarkable catalysts has not yet been fully determined, and thus, the new uses of existing enzymes are being further explored.
Enzyme metabolism is a fundamental bio-process that plays a pivotal role in the survival of all species, including humans, plants, animals, and microorganisms, as their specific function is to catalyze chemical reactions. Abnormality in the enzyme metabolic system leads to a number of metabolic disorders.
Thus, owing to the remarkable properties of enzymes, they are used for the diagnosis of such disorders. Worldwide, researchers have concentrated more on clinical applications of the enzymes, such as acid phosphatase, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, creatine kinase, gelatinase-B, lactate dehydrogenase, and so forth.
Enzymes act as preferred bio-markers in various disease conditions, such as myocardial infarction, renal disease, liver disease, rheumatoid arthritis, schizophrenia, cancer, and so forth. They provide insight into the diseased condition by diagnosis, prognosis, or by assessment of response therapy. Even though literature reveals the use of enzymes in disease conditions, comprehensive analysis is still lacking. The diagnosis and monitoring of various diseases is very demanding nowadays for routine examination of clinical samples and other associated tests.
These require typical analytical methods that demand proficient skill and time for collecting the desired sample volume to perform the clinical tests. A diseased state often leads to tissue damage, depending on the severity of the disease. Under such conditions, enzymes specific to diseased organs are released into blood circulation with enhanced enzyme activity. Nowadays, biosensors are becoming popular potential tools for medical diagnostics, pathogen detection, food safety control, and environmental monitoring. The enzymes are well known as a biological component in the development of biosensors due to their high specificity.
Biosensors have become popular because of their accurate, rapid, sensitive, and selective detection strategies, which can be used routinely. In the healthcare sector, liable and correct information on the desired biochemical parameters is very important. In this context, biosensors are providing great solutions to the problems faced by the existing healthcare industry. Biosensors can be applied for rapid detection of different metabolites for the diagnosis of various diseases. This chapter emphasizes the role of enzymes and enzyme-based biosensors as diagnostic tools for various clinical conditions and diseases.
Strasburger, in Theoretical and Computational Chemistry , Activity of biocatalysts is controlled by their interactions with reactants and exploring physical nature of these interaction energy leads to simpler theoretical models useful in dealing with very large enzymatic systems. The use of direct SCF technique  expanded limits of applicability of variation—perturbation decomposition of SCF interaction energy  to systems large enough to inspect interactions between reactants and enzyme active site ingredients.
Corresponding interaction energy components calculated consistently in dimer basis set match the most accurate perturbational results and display errors one order of magnitude smaller than other conventional decompositions . The increasing importance of electrostatic effects is now widely recognized and one of the recent ACS symposia has been devoted to this topics .
Wherever dominant role of electrostatic interactions is observed one may replace costly variational energy calculations by relatively inexpensive perturbational approach, where only required input data consist of molecular charge distribution representation of appropriate accuracy. This way highly demanding variational energy calculations are replaced by the need to obtain accurate representation of molecular charge distribution.
The most specific and anisotropic electrostatic effects could be reasonably estimated within atomic multipole expansions [ , 33 ] or by approximate density functions  , if penetration effects have to be included too. Significant success of atomic multipolar expansion has been noted in predicting conformations of molecular complexes . Under specific circumstances long bonds and lack of electron delocalization multicenter multipole expansions can be even applied to study intra molecular electrostatic interactions sometimes determining torsional potentials [ 13 , 26 ].
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This feature indicates that in the absence of interfragment delocalization charge distributions for large molecular systems could be constructed from corresponding molecular fragments. More universal CAMM application is compact representation of charge distribution for large molecules. Recent advances in crystallography allow to obtain atomic multipole moments from X-ray diffraction measurements .
Other numerous phenomena determined by electrostatics are described in recent reviews [ , ].
Biocatalysts and Enzyme Technology : Klaus Buchholz :
Segmental multipole moments contain extremely compact linearly scaling O N representation of molecular charge distribution, which may otherwise occupy O N 2 disk space in the form of electron density matrix. This feature should become more important in future, when advances in direct and linearly scaling algorithms will allow to produce routinely electron density matrices for very large molecular systems which could not be permanently stored.
Electrostatic nature of pK a changes observed for mutated subtilisines indicates the possibility to obtain inexpensive estimates of protonation states in enzymes, providing that rarely available experimental estimates of local dielectric constants are known too.
However, completely theoretical analysis would require knowledge of atomic positions of all ingredients including explicitly treated solvent. This point is demonstrated in detailed analysis of HNO This may indicate that Hartree-Fock level two-body electrostatic models may be sufficient to represent environment effects on chemical reactions. However in the case of close active site residues exchange and delocalization terms could be equally important.
This indicates that the applicability of approximate electrostatic models could be limited to more distant residues. Electrostatic models could supplement incomplete experimental data in crude preliminary analysis of catalytic activity of less known enzymes with little homology, like in class I or II aminoacid t-RNA synthetases. Our results obtained for LAP inhibitors confirm that electrostatic models are also useful tools to explain subtle differences of the activity and protonation state of inhibitors.
This conclusion is supported by earlier results for other systems [ 1 , 58 , ]. This work has been supported in part by KBN grant no. We thank Prof. Jeziorski for reading this manuscript and valuable comments. Vamshi Krishna, Venkata Mohan, in Microbial Electrochemical Technology , Cyanobacteria as a biocatalyst in MET have shown some interesting developments in bioelectricity generation by utilizing solar energy.
Like in case of algae, cyanobacterial photocurrent is also light dependent, which increases with the increase in light duration. These photosynthetic organisms can act as an efficient biocatalyst in both anode and cathode region by making use of its photosynthetic mechanism. High power output was reported by cyanobacterial species Synechocystis in microfluidic cell . Immobilized Nostoc sp.
Microcystis aeruginosa as a biocatalyst in the cathode have shown that reactive oxygen species released by cyanobacteria helped in the production of electricity . A study on diverse genera of cyanobacteria has reported some interesting findings on the electrogenic activity photosynthetic electron transfer chain and concluded that the mechanism of electron transfer in cyanobacteria appears to be principally different from the electroactive organisms identified earlier .
Synechocystis is known to produce type IV pili, which is shown to have high conductivity and can only be produced under CO 2 limitation and excess light conditions . Biophotovoltaic cells using cyanobacteria coated on the CNTs were reported to produce current continuously in light and dark conditions . Verma, G. Kaur, in Comprehensive Analytical Chemistry , Enzymes are biocatalysts involved in various biochemical reactions in living systems.
Some metal ions act as a cofactor in the functioning of various enzymes, while others may act as inhibitors distorting the structure and function of enzymes.
Depending on the metal ion to be detected enzymatic, biosensors can be classified into apoenzyme- and holoenzyme-based biosensors. In apoenzyme-based biosensors, heavy metal ions act as cofactors for the activation of enzymes, binding the active site of apoenzymes. These enzymes are used in various chemical reactions. The mechanism is reversible and thus apoenzyme biosensors can be reused after chelating the already present metal ions by using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid EDTA complexes.
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Figure 5. Apoenzyme-based biosensor approach: A apotyrosianse is activated by copper ions; B apocarbonic anhydrase is activated by zinc ions. In holoenzyme-based biosensors, heavy metal ions mostly inhibit the activity of holoenzyme reversibly or irreversibly.